Paul Bilal Williams, in a tweet to Nabil Qureshi, asks about Matthew 28:17, “but some doubted”. Interesting that he left out the part about the disciples “worshiping Jesus”. Indeed. The Greek construction seems to point to the 11 worshiping Jesus, but that there were others there that “doubted”. The “doubting” is probably a term of amazement as in “wow, I don’t believe it!” or “Amazing! It’s too good to be true!” Luke 24:41 captures the essence of this statement – “they still could not believe it because of their joy and amazement” (Luke 24:41, NASB) If it was real doubt, it was only temporary, whether it was some of the 11 or the others, as in the 500 brethren of I Corinthians 15:6.
James D. G. Dunn on Paul’s testimony in 1 Corinthians 15 – “This tradition, we can be entirely confident, was formulated as a tradition within months of Jesus’ death.” Jesus Remembered, page 855. (some sources, say the page number is 825, but I have the electronic version of Jesus Remembered and it is on page 855. Interesting that Paul B. Williams’ favorite NT scholar affirms 1 Corinthians 15!
The doubt exhibited here is not unbelief, but more like hesitation, which is what the Greek word distazo implies (see BDAG, p. 252). This is not the typical word for doubt used in the New Testament (diakrino). In fact, it is only used in one other time (Matthew 14:31, see below for explanation). Instead of refusing to believe what they were seeing, like some have said, the disciples were amazed. The concept here is somewhat comparable to our modern statements like “It’s too good to be true,” or “Pinch me, I’m dreaming.” (Tim Chaffey)
It seems the “some” ( Greek, hoi = literally “those”, plural of “he” ho) are others who are there with the 11 disciples.
There are other passages that support this idea and show why the three claims listed in the introduction are illegitimate interpretations. Jesus appeared to the group of disciples (minus Thomas) on Easter night. At first, they were afraid, but He comforted them by showing them His hands and feet and telling them not to be afraid. Even after these things, we read that “they still could not believe it because of their joy and amazement” (Luke 24:41, NASB). The disciples already believed Jesus had risen from the dead. Just minutes earlier they told the two disciples who had seen Jesus on the road to Emmaus: “The Lord is risen indeed, and has appeared to Simon!” (Luke 24:33–34). But now that they could see Him with their own eyes, they were amazed and rejoiced, which was the reason for their “doubt.”
Earlier in His ministry, a man with a demon-possessed son pleaded with Jesus to cast out the demons. Jesus said, “If you can believe, all things are possible to him who believes.” The man’s response is intriguing—he cried out, “Lord, I believe; help my unbelief!” (Mark 9:14–24). (Tim Chaffey)