The World’s Most Persecuted Religous Minority: Christians

All of this is based on the Qur’an and the Sunnah (written in the Hadith, Tarikh (History), Sira (Life) of the Prophet, and Tafsirs (commentaries on the Qur’an)

Qur’an 9:5 –  “Then, when the sacred months have passed, slay the idolaters wherever ye find them, and take them (captive), and besiege them, and prepare for them each ambush. But if they repent and establish worship and pay the poor-due, then leave their way free. Lo! Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.”  (My emphasis)

After Arabia was conquered for Islam and all were forced to become Muslims, the Muslims feared that they would loose revenue from the pilgrimmages of the idolators who came to Mecca and the Kaaba, so it is important to see verse 28 along with verse 29, as the context for why the Muslims began to attack the Byzantine Empire and the Christians.  (the battle of Tabouk in 630 AD and onward after that)  The Muslim exegetes say the “Asbab ol Nuzul” (Reasons for the Revelation, i.e., historical context for Surah 9:29, is the “Battle of Tabouk”.)  It was not really a battle, but Muhammad gathered his forces to attack the Byzantines because of a rumor he heard that the Byzantines were massing their forces. The Muslims went there and there was no such massing of forces. The flow of Surah 9 from verse 1 to 29 shows the progression of Islam in first conquering Arabia for Islam, and the Hadiths that say “no two religions will be allowed in Arabia”, and then the next stage was to attack the Byzantine Empire in order to get the revenues of the Jiziye and spread Islam.

Qur’an 9:28-29 –  “O ye who believe! The idolaters only are unclean. So let them not come near the Inviolable Place of Worship after this their year.  If ye fear poverty (from the loss of their merchandise) Allah shall preserve you of His bounty if He will.    Lo! Allah is Knower, Wise.  Fight against such of those who have been given the Scripture as believe not in Allah nor the Last Day, and forbid not that which Allah hath forbidden by His messenger, and follow not the Religion of Truth, until they pay the tribute readily, being brought low. “  (My emphasis) 

Note Ibn Kathir’s commentary on Surah 9:28 (“If you fear poverty”) and 29:

Ibn Kathir, The Battles of the Prophet, pp. 183-4— “Allah, Most High, ordered the believers to prohibit the disbelievers from entering or coming near the sacred Mosque. On that, Quraish thought that this would reduce their profits from trade. Therefore, Allah, Most High, compensated them and ordered them to fight the people of the Book until they embrace Islam or pay the Jizyah. Allah says, “O ye who believe! Truly the pagans are unclean; so let them not, after this year of theirs, approach the sacred Mosque. And if ye fear poverty, soon will Allah enrich you, if He wills, out of His bounty, for Allah is All-Knowing, All-Wise. Fight those who believe not in Allah nor the Last Day, nor hold that forbidden which hath been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger, nor acknowledge the religion of Truth, from among the People of the Book, until they pay the Jizyah with willing submission, and feel themselves subdued.” Therefore, the Messenger of Allah decided to fight the Romans in order to call them to Islam.”

Note Ibn Kathir’s commentary on Surah 9:29:

“ The Order to fight People of the Scriptures until They give the Jizyah
(Fight against those who believe not in Allah, nor in the Last Day, nor forbid that which has been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger, and those who acknowledge not the religion of truth among the People of the Scripture,)  This honorable Ayah was revealed with the order to fight the People of the Book, after the pagans were defeated, the people entered Allah’s religion in large numbers, and the Arabian Peninsula was secured under the Muslims’ control. Allah commanded His Messenger to fight the People of the Scriptures, Jews and Christians, on the ninth year of Hijrah, and he prepared his army to fight the Romans and called the people to Jihad announcing his intent and destination. The Messenger sent his intent to various Arab areas around Al-Madinah to gather forces, and he collected an army of thirty thousand. Some people from Al-Madinah and some hypocrites, in and around it, lagged behind, for that year was a year of drought and intense heat. The Messenger of Allah marched, heading towards Ash-Sham to fight the Romans until he reached Tabuk, where he set camp for about twenty days next to its water resources.”  (My emphasis)

[Tafsir ibn Kathir, on 9:29]

Qur’an 8:39 –  “And fight them until  fitneh is no more, and religion is all for Allah. But if they cease, then lo! Allah is Seer of what they do.”  (fitneh فتنه  means “rebellion”, “chaos”, “confusion”, “mutiny”, “sedition”, “strife”, “tumult”; it does not mean “persecution”, ie, against Muslims, though some translations of the Qur’an translate it as “persecution”. )  Muslims tend to interpret it as a trial or temptation arising from the chaos and tumult of allowing freedoms, and that is interpreted as a temptation and trial for Muslims, and rebellion against Islam is interpreted as a “persecution” against Islam. Amazing the rationalizations they have.)

Allah’s Messenger said: “I have been ordered [by Allah] to fight against the people until they testify that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah… so if they perform all that, then they save their lives and property from me.” (Hadith – Sahih Al Bukhari, 1:2:25, also Sahih Muslim, 1:10:29-35)

Allah’s Messenger said, “the earth belongs to Allah and his Apostle.” (Hadith – Sahih Muslim, Book of Jihad, 3:17:4363; also Al Bukhari, Book of al-Jizya, 4:58:3167)

Abu Bakr, the first Caliph after Muhammad died, 632-634 AD, fought the Ridda Wars (Arabic: حروب الردة = Wars against Apostates) – against all the Muslims who would not pay the Zakat, Abu Bakr considered them all apostates and not true Muslims.

Hadith – Sahih al-Bukhari 7284—When Allah’s Messenger died and Abu Bakr was elected as a caliph after him, some of the Arabs reverted to disbelief. Umar said to Abu Bakr, “How dare you fight the people while Allah’s Messenger said, ‘I have been ordered to fight the people till they say: La ilaha illallah. And whoever says La ilaha illallah, saves his wealth and his life from me unless he deserves a legal punishment justly, and his account will be with Allah.’” Abu Bakr said, “By Allah, I will fight him who discriminates between Zakat and Salat (prayers), for Zakat is the compulsory right to be taken from the wealth. By Allah, if they refuse to give me even a tying rope which they used to give to Allah’s Messenger, I would fight them for withholding it.”

Ali burnt some people and this news reached Ibn ‘Abbas, who said, “Had I been in his place I would not have burnt them, as the Prophet said, ‘Don’t punish (anybody) with Allah’s Punishment.’ No doubt, I would have killed them, for the Prophet said, ‘If somebody (a Muslim) discards his religion, kill him.’
— Sahih al-Bukhari, 4:52:260

See more details in the article on Dhimmi / Dhimmitude.

HT:  David Wood at AnsweringMuslims.com

 

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About Ken Temple

I am a follower of Jesus Christ. I am a sinner who has been saved by the grace of God alone (Ephesians 2:8-9), through faith alone (Galatians 2:16; Romans 3:28; 4:1-16), in Christ alone (John 14:6). But a true faith does not stay alone, it should result in change, fruit, good works, and deeper levels of repentance and hatred of my own sins of selfishness and pride. I am not better than you! I still make mistakes and sin, but the Lord is working on me, conforming me to His character. (Romans 8:28-29; 2 Corinthians 3:16-18) When I do sin, I hate the sin as it is an affront to God, and seek His forgiveness in repentance. (Mark 1:15; 2 Corinthians 7:7-10; Colossians 3:5-16 ) Praise God for His love for sinners (Romans 5:8), shown by the voluntary coming of Christ and His freely laying down His life for us (John 10:18), becoming flesh/human (John 1:1-5; 1:14; Philippians 2:5-8), dying for sins of people from all nations, tribes, and cultures (Revelation 5:9), on the cross, in history, rising from the dead (Romans 10:9-10; Matthew 28, Mark 16:1-8; Luke 24; John 20-21; 1 Corinthians chapter 15). His resurrection from the dead proved that Jesus is the Messiah, the eternal Son of God, the word of God from eternity past; and that He was all the gospels say He was and that He is truth and the life and the way to salvation. (John 14:6)
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7 Responses to The World’s Most Persecuted Religous Minority: Christians

  1. Pingback: The World's Most Persecuted Religous Minority: Christians

  2. θ says:

    Right-wing hypocrisy doesn’t impress anyone.
    It is a Political Correctness of Right Wing.
    Christian Right-Wingers can’t blame the Leftists when it comes to the suffering of minorities, they have no one else except themselves and their non-violent Christ theology to blame.
    That’s why nobody cares enough about a typical hypocrisy, ironical whining, and self-contradictory complaints of the Right-Wing concerning Political Correctness, because ironically the Right-Wing has its own PC flaw.

    Sincere empathy without a hidden political agenda is very simple: Every victim is equal. Just being emphatic partially is a proof of concealing a political agenda. If you blame ideology than criminals, you have a concealed agenda. You can’t talk morality at all when approving collective punishment on the innocent Moderate Moslems.

  3. Ken Temple says:

    How is that “right wing hypocrisy” ?

    There is no concealed agenda on my part – the ideology seems to drive the actions of, for lack of a better term “Radical Islamic jihadism” or “Islamism” (the desire and actions of violence and terror, to impose Sharia law on everyone else).

    “Every victim is equal” – I agree; I feel for the moderate Muslims and Shiites and others who are persecuted by the Al Qaeda and Isis types and for Sunnis who are mistreated by the Shiites in their areas and certainly Bashir Al Assad (and especially his father) were evil in their brutality. Sunnis and Shiites have been killing each other for 1400 years. Why can’t they stop the hate and violence with each other? Qaddafi, Saddam Hussein, and the Assads of Syria were and are bad dictators. The Shah of Iran was a dictator. Same for Mubarak in Egypt and Ben Ali of Tunisia. But it gets complicated for an outsider to understand internal Muslim problems. I guess, it seems to us and most westerners that the Muslim world has no real solution to its own internal problems and conflicts. Always blaming USA or Britain or Israel is not the right solution.

    Do you agree with Saudi Arabia executing the Shiite cleric?

    Executing people for belief and speech is wrong.

  4. θ says:

    “Ken Temple says: Sunnis and Shiites have been killing each other for 1400 years. Why can’t they stop the hate and violence with each other? Qaddafi, Saddam Hussein, and the Assads of Syria were and are bad dictators. The Shah of Iran was a dictator. Same for Mubarak in Egypt and Ben Ali of Tunisia. But it gets complicated for an outsider to understand internal Muslim problems. I guess, it seems to us and most westerners that the Muslim world has no real solution to its own internal problems and conflicts. Always blaming USA or Britain or Israel is not the right solution.”

    Semi-major sectarian war – involved regular army – just occurs at some contained volatile spots of Iraq, Syria, and Yemen.

    Fortunately, Sunnis and Shiites have lived in a constant detente for 1,400 years in the greater Middle East’s regions that are known as Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, and Iran, even Turkey. Even there was a vacuum of conflict between Sunnis and Shiites under deposed tyrants of Qaddafi, Mubarak and Ben Ali.

    Iraq-Iran war is the last major sectarian battle that involved 2 state armies. Syrian Civil and Yemeni Civil war just occurred between regime and irregular militias.
    Despite visible sectarian rivalry, yet there was anomaly in a secretive relationship under Iraqi Sunnis under Saddam with Alawite Shi’ah under Al Asad, as if there’s no more sectarian hostility under a unified ideology of Ba’aathism.

    Fortunately, Since 2000s til now Al Qaeda never has a state in a decent definition. It is proof that de-radicalisation works very well alongside Taqiyya culture of Arab Street that always pretends to sympathise the militias.

  5. θ says:

    In Islam there’s a well-known principle that is slightly similar to “the Law of the land” in the Christian theology, that is the ” Mu’ahid ” in light of Qur’an Q.4, v.90.
    Mu’ahid is a covenanted infidel, not a dhimmi under Islamic Shari’ah.
    Killing the infidels in warfare (Dar al-Harb) is obligatory, but the ruling is exempted and superseded by the covenant (Mithaqun) of respecting of the basic human Rights of Mu’ahid (life, faith, wife, wealth, feeling, border, et cetera) as long as their right doesn’t seek enmity with Islamic belief.

    In today’s West, taking the female slaves, polygamy, marrying post-pubescent women below marriage age, collecting poll-tax, et cetera are crime. Moslems have to respect their civic law.

    Abu Dawud, Hadith 3052.
    Safwan reported Messenger of Allah said: Beware, if anyone wrongs a Contracting man, or diminishes his Right, or forces him to work beyond his capacity, or takes from him anything without his consent, I shall plead for him on the Day of Judgment.

    أَلاَ مَنْ ظَلَمَ مُعَاهِدًا أَوِ انْتَقَصَهُ أَوْ كَلَّفَهُ فَوْقَ طَاقَتِهِ أَوْ أَخَذَ مِنْهُ شَيْئًا بِغَيْرِ طِيبِ نَفْسٍ فَأَنَا حَجِيجُهُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ ‏”‏ ‏.‏

    لَّا الَّذِينَ يَصِلُونَ إِلَىٰ قَوْمٍ بَيْنَكُمْ وَبَيْنَهُم مِّيثَاقٌ أَوْ جَاءُوكُمْ حَصِرَتْ صُدُورُهُمْ أَن يُقَاتِلُوكُمْ أَوْ يُقَاتِلُوا قَوْمَهُمْ ۚ وَلَوْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ لَسَلَّطَهُمْ عَلَيْكُمْ فَلَقَاتَلُوكُمْ ۚ فَإِنِ اعْتَزَلُوكُمْ فَلَمْ يُقَاتِلُوكُمْ وَأَلْقَوْا إِلَيْكُمُ السَّلَمَ فَمَا جَعَلَ اللَّهُ لَكُمْ عَلَيْهِمْ سَبِيلًا

    Q.4, v.90. Except those who join a nation between whom and ye there is a Covenant, or those who approach you with hearts restraining them from fighting you as well as fighting their own people. If Allah had pleased, He could have given them power over you, and they would have fought you: Therefore if they withdraw from you but fight you not, and instead send you the peace, then Allah hath not opened any way for you (to hurt them)

  6. θ says:

    (i) It is incumbent by Sunnah for Moslems to accept principle of tolerance (integration by diversity) when Moslems are still minority in the land of Non-Moslems.

    (ii) But it is incumbent by Sunnah for Moslems to reject the radicalism and sectarianism when Moslems are posed to become simple majority in the land formerly belonged to Non-Moslems.

    (iii) Also it is incumbent by Sunnah for Moslems to wage war on behalf of Non-Moslem allies (as war of Mu’tah against Bysantium and war against Persian) against other Non-Moslems. It is a strategy of religious patriotism alongside Non-Moslem allies.

    (iv) Also it is incumbent by Sunnah for Moslems to be abstaining, neutral and exempting from waging war – unless being coerced by Non-Moslem allies – if the war is against other Moslems.

    Different from “Islamic Irredentism” (holy war) to liberate Mekkah about 1,400 years ago by using a necessary force, the so-called gradual Islamisation of the world externally outside of Mekkah is a repetition of 13 years (in Mekka) + 2 years (in Madinah) of the principle of endurance, pacifism, and unity-in-diversity, as well as strategy of religious patriotism, as being taught by Sunnah of Prophet Muhammad.

  7. θ says:

    In Islam, the great sin is equated with Fitna (violent crime), even though those sins have nothing to do with violence such as Homosexuality, witchcraft, addiction-related crime, et cetera. The role of Prophet in the past is to provoke the sinners to be violent, so that the religion has a reason to condemn them with Fitna.
    It works well as in the story of Salih’s camel, as well as the arrival of angels in the story of Lot.

    In Modern world, the Islamic tactic is ironically adapted and adopted by the Secular Government that cleverly depicted the religion as the force of Fitna, that is as the source of Terrorism. They termed it sometimes as the “Big Fish”, a greater case, as a “great Picture.” Some Secular provocateurs even have a job to infiltrate, pretend, provoke certain young religious person to the anger of radicalisation by many tactical means, even by challenging their fragile and burning emotion publicly.
    It is all about control. Secular Government infiltrated the minorities, drug business, and where the dirty money goes in order to control them, and to make them as diversions or distractions for certain moments.

    Tactic requires soft and intelligent approaches in making a case so big with a stronger accusation of Fitna, that is a violence. Most today’s Jihadists just act to catch such a small fish or see a small picture, only: they win a battle, but lose the greater war.

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