God spoke through the prophets and at last finally, in His Son

The Greek Text of Hebrews 1:1-2a (Dr. Thomas Schreiner of Southern Baptist Seminary)

The nuances of the Greek text of Hebrews 1:1-2 are beautiful.

Πολυμερῶς καὶ πολυτρόπως πάλαι ὁ θεὸς λαλήσας τοῖς πατράσιν ἐν τοῖς προφήταις

ἐπ᾽ ἐσχάτων τῶν ἡμερῶν τούτων ἐλάλησεν ἡμῖν ἐν υἱῷ . . .

Dr. Schreiner notes the illiteration of the letter π (p), and the parallels of contrast between “of old” vs. “in these last days” and “spoke through the prophets” vs. “has spoken in His Son” and “spoken to the fathers” vs. “has spoken to us”.

Dr. Schreiner makes a great point of the contrast between the participle (“speaking” or “was speaking” = λαλησας – in the past in the prophets) vs. the aorist Active Indicative (“spoke”, or “has spoken” in these last days in His Son – ελαλησεν).

The idea is, “In the past, God was speaking progressively through the prophets in the OT (and they were written down); and in these last days, God has spoken finally and decisively in His Son. (and the “speaking of God through His Son” was written down by the apostles of Jesus Christ (and those under apostolic authority) in the NT, 4 gospels, letters, Acts, Revelation)

“I still have many things to say to you, but you cannot bear them now.  When the Spirit of truth comes, he will guide you into all the truth, for he will not speak on his own authority, but whatever he hears he will speak, and he will declare to you the things that are to come. He will glorify me, for he will take what is mine and declare it to you.  All that the Father has is mine; therefore I said that he will take what is mine and declare it to you.”   John 16:12-15

“For I have given them the words that You gave Me, and they have received them and have come to know in truth that I came from You; and they have believed that You sent Me.”  John 17:8

The words of the apostles that were eventually written down, were the words of Jesus that God the Father gave to Jesus. The Holy Spirit revealed the rest of the truths of the faith to the NT writers.

Hebrews was probably written around 68-69 AD – definitely before the destruction of the temple in Jerusalem in 70 AD. We know this because of the verb tenses of the descriptions of the work of the priests in the temple, when the writer of Hebrews describes them, they are in the present tense. (see Hebrews 5:1-2; 8:3-5; 9:6-7) Also, if Hebrews had been written after 70 AD, for sure the writer would have made a point about that, since he has already said several times that Christ was the final “once for all” sacrifice for sins. (Hebrews 7:27; 9:12; 9:26; 9:27; 10:10; 10:12; 10:14)

God inspired this book, as “all Scripture is God-breathed” (2 Tim. 3:16; see also 2 Peter 1:20-21), as the content has all the qualities and heavenly marks of being “God-breathed”.

The human writer of Hebrews is unknown dogmatically, and several have been proposed throughout church history: the Apostle Paul, Luke, Apollos, Silas, and Barnabas. Personally, I think the evidence points to Barnabas, who was on Paul’s missionary team on his first missionary journey (Acts 13-14). Barnabas is called an Apostle (Acts 14:4; 14:14), he was a Levite (Acts 4:36), which explains his great familiarity and details about the priesthood and the temple sacrifices in Hebrews chapters 5, 7, 8, 9, and 10. Barnabas’ name means “son of encouragement/ exhortation” and he seems to leave a clue for that in Hebrews 13:22 (bear with this brief letter of encouragement/ exhortation). Tertullian also proposed that the writer of Hebrews was Barnabas. (De Pudicitia = “Of Modesty”, 20) The fact that the writer does not say “Paul, an apostle of Jesus Christ . . . “, etc., which Paul always did in all his other letters, along with the different Greek style, points to the fact that Paul probably did not write Hebrews. Some believe that Luke wrote it for Paul, since the Greek is very high and elegant, like Acts and Luke are.

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About Ken Temple

I am a follower of Jesus Christ. I am a sinner who has been saved by the grace of God alone (Ephesians 2:8-9), through faith alone (Galatians 2:16; Romans 3:28; 4:1-16), in Christ alone (John 14:6). But a true faith does not stay alone, it should result in change, fruit, good works, and deeper levels of repentance and hatred of my own sins of selfishness and pride. I am not better than you! I still make mistakes and sin, but the Lord is working on me, conforming me to His character. (Romans 8:28-29; 2 Corinthians 3:16-18) When I do sin, I hate the sin as it is an affront to God, and seek His forgiveness in repentance. (Mark 1:15; 2 Corinthians 7:7-10; Colossians 3:5-16 ) Praise God for His love for sinners (Romans 5:8), shown by the voluntary coming of Christ and His freely laying down His life for us (John 10:18), becoming flesh/human (John 1:1-5; 1:14; Philippians 2:5-8), dying for sins of people from all nations, tribes, and cultures (Revelation 5:9), on the cross, in history, rising from the dead (Romans 10:9-10; Matthew 28, Mark 16:1-8; Luke 24; John 20-21; 1 Corinthians chapter 15). His resurrection from the dead proved that Jesus is the Messiah, the eternal Son of God, the word of God from eternity past; and that He was all the gospels say He was and that He is truth and the life and the way to salvation. (John 14:6)
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21 Responses to God spoke through the prophets and at last finally, in His Son

  1. θ says:

    “Ken Temple says: In the past, God was speaking progressively through the prophets in the OT (and they were written down); and in these last days, God has spoken finally and decisively in His Son.”

    Too simple. The Father referred to by John 3:16 is not the true God of the Old Testament, because one Gospel’s passage “For God so loved the world that he gave his one and only Son” is absolutely opposite and contradictory to Jesus’ crying complaint by using the Old Testament’s Law: “Did not Moses give you the Law, and yet none of you keepeth the Law? Why go ye about to kill me?”

    What monstrous God is it who sacrifices his son?

    In Islam, it is “For God so loved the world so that He doesn’t need human sacrifice to show His mercy over sins”.

  2. θ says:

    “Ken Temple says: islam-could-not-get-rid-of-the-concept-of-sacrifice-ransom-or-substitutionary-atonement”

    Animal sacrifice is also one part of many ways of Allah’s mercy, as being shown by Abraham and his son.
    “For God so loved the world so that He doesn’t need to sacrifice Abraham’s son to show His mercy – i.e. substitution by animal sacrifice – over sins”.

  3. Ken Temple says:

    Jesus Al Masih عیسی المسیح is the lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world. John 1:29
    (John the Baptizer) Yahya یحیی testified to this; and the story of Abraham and his son in Gen. 22 prophesied and fore-shadowed the truth of it.

  4. θ says:

    “Ken Temple says: John the Baptizer) Yahya یحیی testified to this”

    John is not Moses. John can’t annul Moses’ Law that forbids a Jew – including Jesus himself – to kill an innocent soul.

  5. Ken Temple says:

    Jesus voluntarily allowed Himself to be killed; big difference. Yes He was innocent and sinless. God Himself, the 2nd person of the Trinity (in eternity past, one God in three persons, Father, Son, and Holy Spirit) can certainly become flesh/ human if He wants to (John 1:1-5; John 1:14; Philippians 2:5-8) and allow Himself to be killed if He wants to; yes He can.

    John 10:18 – No one takes My life from Me, I lay down My life voluntarily, on My own authority; and I take it up again on My own authority . . .

    I am just curious θ, what kind of a Muslim are you? (Sunni, Salafi, Sufi, Shiite, Ahmadiye, Zayidi, Ismaili, ?)

  6. θ says:

    “Ken Temple says: I am just curious θ, what kind of a Muslim are you? (Sunni, Salafi, Sufi, Shiite, Ahmadiye, Zayidi, Ismaili, ?)”

    The word “Moslem” is much older – since the time of Abraham – and more sacred than the terms or ways of religiosity Sunni, Salafi, Sufi, Shiite, Ahmadiye, Zayidi, Ismaili.
    The word “Sunnah” is the more Qur’anic and more Hadithic than other terms above. No one calls himself or someone else “Shi’ite in Hadith, as if it were a myth for Early Moslems.

    If a Moslem just consider any Madhab (school of thoughts) as the flexible ways of fallible scholars toward Allah, then he can switch the way for a sake of competing for a better goodness.
    What is wrong is a very proud and pedantic person who assumed the school of thoughts or Madhab made by scholars ( in their very brief time of learning, less than 100 years to recollect all knowledge of Islam in the time when there’s no Modern technology to do so) could be equal to the fixed Allah’s ways (Subulana) or could be immune from any error.
    Worse, What is wrong is a very pedantic person who assumed the school of thoughts (Madhab) made by certain scholar can be infallible whereas other thoughts turn to be fallible.

    Those scholars of Madhab just learned too brief to recollect all knowledge of Islam in the past.
    For example, Imam Shafi’i – who is the most “mobile” scholar amongs the early scholars of Madhab – just changed his opinion after he learned a new thing after a “few years”. What would happen if Imam Shafi’i had learned more and more by having much time to live and study? Perhaps he would have changed so many his pastime opinions.

  7. θ says:

    “Ken Temple says: and allow Himself to be killed if He wants to; yes He can.”

    That’s an amateurish response of Christians all the time. Has not as a Jew Jesus also been given the same Law of Moses to keep? Why goes he about to kill himself?
    John 7:19 Did not Moses give you the Law, and yet none of you keepeth the Law? Why go ye about to kill me?”

    Now, if God is so arbitrarily unpredictable, can change his mind unexpectedly, being not consistent, not even by his own words, then we Moslems also claim how the God can also change his words in the New Testament by rejecting the “old terms”and “old assumption” about the Father, the Son, crucifixion, vicarious atonement, et cetera.

  8. Ken Temple says:

    Allowing oneself to be killed voluntarily out of love as a sacrifice for sinners
    is
    much different than
    killing oneself.

    He did not kill Himself.

    He volunteered to be the sacrifice for sinners from all nations. (Revelation 5:9; 7:9)

  9. θ says:

    “Ken Temple says: Allowing oneself to be killed voluntarily out of love as a sacrifice for sinners
    is much different than killing oneself.”

    High Priest along with a group of Jewish nobles – who then also incited Judas to betray – have something similarly “Christian theme” in his mind and intention:
    Jn 11
    49 And one of them, named Caiaphas, being the high priest that same year, said unto them, Ye know nothing at all, 50 Nor consider that it is expedient for us, that one man should die for the people, and that the whole nation perish not.51 And this spake he not of himself: but being high priest that year, he prophesied that Jesus should die for that nation;52 And not for that nation only, but that also he should gather together in one the children of God that were scattered abroad.53 Then from that day forth they took counsel together for to put him to death.

  10. θ says:

    Additional comment:
    “Ken Temple says: Allowing oneself to be killed voluntarily out of love as a sacrifice for sinners is much different than killing oneself.”

    Did Jesus fail to read the mind of Jewish nobles, especially High Priest? Was he in his ignorant mode when accusing Jews to go to kill him, John 7:19?
    High Priest along with a group of Jewish nobles – who then also incited Judas to betray – have something similarly “Christian theme” in his mind and intention to “sacrifice” him.
    Perhaps Jews remembered how Jesus was once called a “Lamb of God” by John the Baptist?
    Jn 11
    49 And one of them, named Caiaphas, being the high priest that same year, said unto them, Ye know nothing at all, 50 Nor consider that it is expedient for us, that one man should die for the people, and that the whole nation perish not.51 And this spake he not of himself: but being high priest that year, he prophesied that Jesus should die for that nation;52 And not for that nation only, but that also he should gather together in one the children of God that were scattered abroad.53 Then from that day forth they took counsel together for to put him to death.

  11. θ says:

    On Heb 1.
    By the invisible God’s Speech the visible world is made.
    Heb 1
    2 Hath in these last days spoken [ Elalesen ] unto us by his Son whom he hath appointed heir of all things, by whom [ Di hou ] also he made the worlds;

    “By whom” in Heb 1:2 refers to the Unseen Word spoken by God, not to his visible son. Different from Trinitarian interpretation, Unitarian understanding of Heb 1:2 is that God makes the worlds or eternity by (thru, via, with) the spoken word.
    In the same book, the author of the book of Hebrew happens to have assured that the visible world is made, framed, and upheld by the “Unseen Word” spoken by God.
    Heb 11
    3 Through faith we understand that the worlds were framed by the word [ Rhemata ] of God, so that things which are seen were not made of things which do appear.

    Similarly, in the Prologue John 1:3 and Psalm 33:6 the Word is responsible for facilitating the creation of the visible world. However, despite being divine, Jews don’t consider the Word as the gods or person worthy of worship.
    Jn 1
    1 In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.2 The same was in the beginning with God.3 All things were made by him; and without him was not any thing made that was made.
    Ps 33
    6 By the word of the LORD were the heavens made; and all the host of them by the breath of his mouth.

    The spoken word is unseen, whereas Jesus (whose title is the Word of Life in 1 John.1:1-2) is visible, perceptible, and touchable by the seen ones.
    In 1Cor 15:2 Paul also uses the same phrase “by whom” (Di hou) for the saving words of Gospel, even though the verses aren’t person.
    1Cor 15
    1 Moreover, brethren, I declare unto you the gospel which I preached unto you, which also ye have received, and wherein ye stand; 2 By which [ Di hou ] also ye are saved, if ye keep in memory what I preached unto you, unless ye have believed in vain.

    Furthermore, the author of the book of Hebrew credited the Word – not Jesus – to be the real instrument behind Jesus’ role to uphold or bind or frame all tangible things for a reconciliation with God and heaven above.
    Heb 1:3
    Who being the brightness of his glory, and the express image of his person, and upholding all things by the word [ Rhemati ] of his power, when he had by himself purged our sins, sat down on the right hand of the Majesty on high;

  12. Ken Temple says:

    The Word and The Son are the same from all eternity. The Word became flesh (John 1:14). The Word and the Son were God by nature from all eternity past and invisible, spirit, until He became flesh through a virgin.

  13. θ says:

    First of all, No one renders Latreauo (religious service) to the Word, not even Jews despite knowing of the Word’s divine instrument of creation of heaven per Ps.33:6. As addition none renders Latreauo to Spirit either.

    Next, Abraham just reacts so casually by just showing a gladness or giving a smile when seeing the Word’s days, as if the Word were simply a mortal person like his son Isaac. Abraham laughs when getting a promise of 2nd child in Gen 17:17.

    Also, Isaiah doesn’t address the Word as the ones who send him as Messenger to Jews, despite seeing his glory in Jerusalem, and that is ironic because his writing Isaiah 53 is main source of Trinitarians to argue about a prophesy of the Jewish slain Messiah.

  14. θ says:

    Addition.
    It is so unbelievable that although Jesus claims that Moses writes about him (the Word) but never worships him?
    It is so unbelievable that although David under the inspiration of Holy Spirit sees Jesus as his Lord, at the side of Jehovah, but David doesn’t worship that Lord?
    It is so unbelievable that although Daniel sees thru Gabriel’s vision the Son of Man who ascends up to the figure of Ancient of Days, even writing about the Son, but neither Daniel nor Gabriel worship Jesus?
    It is so unbelievable that although Daniel gets the prophesy of Messiah, even writing about the actions and death of Messiah, but Daniel doesn’t worship him?
    It is so unbelievable that John the Baptist just reacts less emotionally by shouting to him “Behold the Lamb of God” rather than properly rendering Latreauo or Proskuneo when he sees Jesus along the Jordan river?
    It is so unbelievable that the angels and twenty four Elders of heaven don’t render Latreauo to the Lamb when he really stands in their midst.

  15. Ken Temple says:

    I will let you find these references and see the progression that proves you are wrong.

    καὶ ἔπεσον ἔμπροσθεν τῶν ποδῶν αὐτοῦ προσκυνῆσαι αὐτῷ καὶ λέγει μοι Ὅρα μή σύνδουλός σού εἰμι καὶ τῶν ἀδελφῶν σου τῶν ἐχόντων τὴν μαρτυρίαν τοῦ Ἰησοῦ τῷ θεῷ προσκύνησον ἡ γὰρ μαρτυρία τοῦ Ἰησοῦ ἐστιν τὸ πνεῦμα τῆς προφητείας

    κἀγὼ Ἰωάννης ὁ ἀκούων καὶ βλέπων ταῦτα καὶ ὅτε ἤκουσα καὶ ἔβλεψα ἔπεσα προσκυνῆσαι ἔμπροσθεν τῶν ποδῶν τοῦ ἀγγέλου τοῦ δεικνύοντός μοι ταῦτα

    καὶ λέγει μοι ὅρα μή σύνδουλός σού εἰμι καὶ τῶν ἀδελφῶν σου τῶν προφητῶν καὶ τῶν τηρούντων τοὺς λόγους τοῦ βιβλίου τούτου τῷ θεῷ προσκύνησον

    καὶ πᾶν κτίσμα ὃ ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ καὶ ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς καὶ ὑποκάτω τῆς γῆς καὶ ἐπὶ τῆς θαλάσσης καὶ τὰ ἐν αὐτοῖς πάντα ἤκουσα λέγοντας τῷ καθημένῳ ἐπὶ τῷ θρόνῳ καὶ τῷ ἀρνίῳ ἡ εὐλογία καὶ ἡ τιμὴ καὶ ἡ δόξα καὶ τὸ κράτος εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων

    καὶ τὰ τέσσαρα ζῷα ἔλεγον ἀμήν καὶ οἱ πρεσβύτεροι ἔπεσαν καὶ προσεκύνησαν

    οἱ δὲ ἐν τῷ πλοίῳ προσεκύνησαν αὐτῷ λέγοντες ἀληθῶς θεοῦ υἱὸς εἶ

    λέγοντες ποῦ ἐστιν ὁ τεχθεὶς βασιλεὺς τῶν Ἰουδαίων εἴδομεν γὰρ αὐτοῦ τὸν ἀστέρα ἐν τῇ ἀνατολῇ καὶ ἤλθομεν προσκυνῆσαι αὐτῷ

    καὶ ἐλθόντες εἰς τὴν οἰκίαν εἶδον τὸ παιδίον μετὰ Μαρίας τῆς μητρὸς αὐτοῦ καὶ πεσόντες προσεκύνησαν αὐτῷ καὶ ἀνοίξαντες τοὺς θησαυροὺς αὐτῶν προσήνεγκαν αὐτῷ δῶρα χρυσὸν καὶ λίβανον καὶ σμύρναν

    ἀπεκρίθη Θωμᾶς καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῷ ὁ κύριός μου καὶ ὁ θεός μου

    ὅταν δὲ πάλιν εἰσαγάγῃ τὸν πρωτότοκον εἰς τὴν οἰκουμένην λέγει καὶ προσκυνησάτωσαν αὐτῷ πάντες ἄγγελοι θεοῦ

    πρὸς δὲ τὸν υἱόν ὁ θρόνος σου ὁ θεός εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα τοῦ αἰῶνος καὶ ἡ ῥάβδος τῆς εὐθύτητος ῥάβδος τῆς βασιλείας σου

    ὁ δὲ ἔφη πιστεύω κύριε καὶ προσεκύνησεν αὐτῷ

  16. θ says:

    According the New Testament, for Christians there’s one God, because Latreauo (religious service) is given to Him.
    On the contrary, although Satan is called “God” so clearly in 2 Cor 4:4 but Trinitarians don’t render a Latreauo to him. Earlier Prophets are called “Gods” – despite being in the flesh, visible, and mortal – but Trinitarians don’t render a Latreauo to them.
    Paul sometimes doesn’t rebuke the heathens who call him “God”.
    Acts 14
    11 And when the people saw what Paul had done, they lifted up their voices, saying in the speech of Lycaonia, The gods are come down to us in the likeness of men.14 Which when the apostles, Barnabas and Paul, heard of, they rent their clothes, and ran in among the people, crying out,15
    And saying, Sirs, why do ye these things? We also are men of like passions with you, and preach unto you that ye should turn from these vanities unto the living God, which made heaven, and earth, and the sea, and all things that are therein:
    Acts 28
    6 After they had looked a great while, and saw no harm come to him, they changed their minds, and said that he was a god.

  17. Ken Temple says:

    Obviously, “renting their clothes” = tearing their clothes – a sign of strong reaction to blasphemy and idolatry. They were saying, “don’t do that, we are just people like you; worship God alone.”

    Which when the apostles, Barnabas and Paul, heard of, they rent their clothes, and ran in among the people, crying out,
    And saying, Sirs, why do ye these things? We also are men of like passions with you, and preach unto you that ye should turn from these vanities unto the living God, which made heaven, and earth, and the sea, and all things that are therein.

    You didn’t find all those verses that show Jesus received worship as God.

  18. θ says:

    “Ken Temple says: Obviously, “renting their clothes” = tearing their clothes – a sign of strong reaction to blasphemy and idolatry. ”

    Paul doesn’t tear apart his cloth when the heathens said to him he was a god.
    Acts 28
    6 After they had looked a great while, and saw no harm come to him, they changed their minds, and said that he was a god.

  19. Ken Temple says:

    Acts 28 is different context and different details than in Acts 14. Acts 14 is clear – the people were worshiping Paul and Barnabas as gods and attempting to offer sacrifices in front of lots of witnesses. Because it was such a public display, they objected strongly.

    But in Acts 28 – the situation is different – they are saying this “to themselves” / “among themselves” / ” to one another” . verse 4 – “they said to one another that he was a murder” – verse 6 – “they changed their minds and began to say that he was a god” –

    it seems that they were saying these things to themselves and not making an outward display of saying that or worshiping Paul, as in Acts 14.

    read the rest of the account. they honored them and respected them; but they did not worship him.

    the passage does not go into more details, but we can be sure that Paul preached the gospel to them and explained who it was that had healed the sick people in verses 7-9 – that God healed them and He used Paul as His servant.

  20. θ says:

    “Ken Temple says: – “they changed their minds and began to say that he was a god” – it seems that they were saying these things to themselves and not making an outward display of saying that or worshiping Paul, as in Acts 14.”

    Well, maybe it explains why verbal deification of human to god (saint divinisation) is not considered a sin for Catholics and other Trinitarians.

    Irenaeus (c. 130-200)
    “The Word of God, our Lord Jesus Christ, who did, through His transcendent love, become what we are, that He might bring us to be even what He is Himself.”
    “‘For we cast blame upon [God], because we have not been made gods from the beginning, but at first merely men, then at length gods; although God has adopted this course out of His pure benevolence, that no one may impute to Him invidiousness or grudgingness he declares, ‘I have said, Ye are gods; and all of you are sons of the Most High.’ “
    “For it was necessary, at first, that nature should be exhibited; then, after that, that what was mortal should be conquered and swallowed up by immortality, and the corruptible by incorruptibility, and that man should be made after the image and likeness of God.”

    Clement of Alexandria (c. 150-215)
    “The Word of God became man, that thou mayest learn from man how man may become God.”
    “For if one knows himself, he will know God; and knowing God, he will be made like God”
    “His is beauty, the true beauty, for it is God; and that man becomes God, since God so wills. Heraclitus, then, rightly said, “Men are gods, and gods are men.” For the Word Himself is the manifest mystery: God in man, and man God”
    “He who listens to the Lord, and follows the prophecy given by Him, will be formed perfectly in the likeness of the teacher—made a god going about in flesh.”
    “And to be incorruptible is to participate in divinity…”

    Justin Martyr (c. 100-165)
    “Men were made like God, free from suffering and death, provided that they kept His commandments, and were deemed deserving of the name of His sons, and yet they, becoming like Adam and Eve, work out death for themselves; let the interpretation of the Psalm be held just as you wish, yet thereby it is demonstrated that all men are deemed worthy of becoming “gods,” and of having power to become sons of the Highest.”

    Theophilus of Antioch (c. 120-190)
    “For if He had made him immortal from the beginning, He would have made him God. Again, if He had made him mortal, God would seem to be the cause of his death. Neither, then, immortal nor yet mortal did He make him, but, as we have said above, capable of both; so that if he should incline to the things of immortality, keeping the commandment of God, he should receive as reward from Him immortality, and should become God…”

    Hippolytus of Rome (c. 170-235)
    “And you shall be a companion of the Deity, and a co-heir with Christ, no longer enslaved by lusts or passions, and never again wasted by disease. For you have become God: for whatever sufferings you underwent while being a man, these He gave to you, because you were of mortal mould, but whatever it is consistent with God to impart, these God has promised to bestow upon you, because you have been deified, and begotten unto immortality.”
    “If, therefore, man has become immortal, he will also be God. And if he is made God by water and the Holy Spirit after the regeneration of the laver he is found to be also joint-heir with Christ after the resurrection from the dead.”

    Athanasius of Alexandria (c. 296-373)
    “Therefore He was not man, and then became God, but He was God, and then became man, and that to deify us”
    “for as the Lord, putting on the body, became man, so we men are deified by the Word as being taken to Him through His flesh.”
    “For He was made man that we might be made God.”

    Gregory of Nyssa (c. 335-395)
    “Since the God who was manifested infused Himself into perishable humanity for this purpose, viz. that by this communion with Deity mankind might at the same time be deified, for this end it is that, by dispensation of His grace, He disseminated Himself in every believer.”
    “For just as He in Himself assimilated His own human nature to the power of the Godhead, being a part of the common nature, but not being subject to the inclination to sin which is in that nature (for it says: “He did no sin, nor was deceit found in his mouth), so, also, will He lead each person to union with the Godhead if they do nothing unworthy of union with the Divine.”

    Augustine of Hippo (c. 354-430)
    “‘For He hath given them power to become the sons of God, John 1:12. If we have been made sons of God, we have also been made gods.”

    Maximus the Confessor
    “Nothing in theosis is the product of human nature, for nature cannot comprehend God. It is only the mercy of God that has the capacity to endow theosis unto the existing… In theosis, man (the image of God) becomes likened to God, he rejoices in all the plenitude that does not belong to him by nature, because the grace of the Spirit triumphs within him, and because God acts in him.”

    Cyril of Alexandria
    “For we too are sons and gods by grace, and we have surely been brought to this wonderful and supernatural dignity since we have the Only Begotten Word of God dwelling within us.”

    Gregory of Nazianzus
    implores humankind to “become gods for (God’s) sake, since (God) became man for our sake.”.
    Likewise, he argues that the mediator “pleads even now as Man for my salvation; for He continues to wear the Body which He assumed, until He make me God by the power of His Incarnation.”
    “Through the medium of the mind he had dealings with the flesh, being made that God on earth, which is Man: Man and God blended. They became a single whole, the stronger side predominating, in order that I might be made God to the same extent that he was made man.”
    Basil of Caesarea stated that “becoming a god is the highest goal of all”

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