Dr. Kruger shows that the NT canon was taking shape at the end of the first century and becomes more and more clear in the 2nd Century. From very early, there was a clear understanding of most of the books of NT – around 22-23 of the 27 were clearly named as Holy Scripture by Irenaeus, Clement of Alexandria, and Tertullian and earlier the four gospels and Paul’s letters were named as inspired Scripture. Justin Martyr shows he knows the gospels and the book of Revelation. Polycarp, Ignatius, Clement of Rome are quoting Paul’s letters as Scripture.
Demonstrates this by citing Irenaeus (180 AD), the Muratorian Canon (160 AD), Clement of Alexandria(died, 215 AD) , Theophilus of Antioch (180 AD), Justin Martyr (165 AD), Ignatius (110 AD), Polycarp (155 AD), Papas (90-135 AD) and the apostle John and Peter (2 Peter 3:16 citing all of Paul’s letters as Scripture) and 1 Timothy 5:17-18 as Paul citing Luke’s gospel as Scripture along with Deuteronomy.
I would add Tertullian to Dr. Kruger’s list in this lecture. Tertullian (wrote from around 190-220 AD) and was also as contemporary with Irenaeus and Clement of Alexandria, who quoted and referred to 22-23 of the 27 NT books as inspired Scripture.
I would add Clement of Rome, who is the traditional author of an epistle from the church of Rome to the Corinthians, written around 96 AD, as quoting Paul’s letters as Scripture – “take up the epistle of the blessed Apostle Paul. What did he write to you . . . ? = earlier letter to the Corinthians”
Take up the epistle of the blessed Apostle Paul. What did he write to you at the time when the Gospel first began to be preached? Truly, under the inspiration of the Spirit, he wrote to you concerning himself, and Cephas, and Apollos, because even then parties had been formed among you. [referring to 1 Corinthians chapters 1, 2, 3, and 4:1-6]1 Clement to the Corinthians, 47:1-3 see here
1 Clement also quotes from the book of Hebrews. 1 Clement 36
Therefore, no one should say statements like “The Bible did not exist until the 4th Century” ( 300s AD) Just because they are all mentioned by one author does not mean they did not exist – they existed in the first century, but each one was originally a rolled up individual scroll sent to various places and churches in the Mediterranean world. The Codex was not invented yet in the first century. The codex later came into vogue in the Roman world, by flattening the sheets out and tying more than one book together with string. The “codex” was a primitive form of what later became what we know as a book with a binding. They did not have binding yet for books.